The metabolic N-oxidation ofnitrogenousxenobiotics has been reported tc occur in many biologicalsystems, in addition to mammaliantissues, and the mechanisms appear to differ in many respects from those involved in oxidative attack atcarbon centres. Theextensive useofnitrogen-containing compounds as pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates can lead to exposure to alarge numberofthese agentsunderwidelyvaryingconditions. Biotransformation of these xenobiotics by N-oxidative pathways can effect detoxication, butequallywellcaninduceformation ofcytotoxicmetabolites or potential promutagens and procarcinogens. The substantial progress, in recent years, in our understanding ofthe biochemistry and toxicology of N- oxidation of nitrogenous structures has created a need for a synthesis of current knowledge. This book provides a wide-ranging review of the state-of-the-art in nitrogen xenobiochemistry divided into four parts. The introductory chapter discusses recent developments in trace analysis of radical intermediates and other N-oxygenated products by physical and immunochemical techniques. Special attention is given in Part Two to the enzymology of N-oxidation. Thus, detailed account is given of the mechanism and substrate specificity of the flavin-containing mono- oxygenase and factors regulating its activity are addressed. A separate chapter outlines the polymorphic expression of flavoprotein-dependent reactions. Similarly, the mechanistic background and inducibility of cytochrome P-450-catalysed turnover of specific types of nitrogenous compounds is highlighted. Data are also compiled describing the role of peroxidative N-oxidation of xenobiotics in extrahepatic tissues lacking significant amounts ofcytochrome P-450.
Gender, drugs and street life explores the way girls and boys of white British origin access and participate in legal and illegal drugs, within the context of supply at the local level. It explores the relationship of children and young people to the local drug market from a gendered perspective, and illustrates how their drug behaviours should be understood in both localised and gendered terms.
The book draws on a two-year ethnographic study of children and young people growing up on 'Northside', a small housing estate located on the edge of a large Northern city in England. The book addresses the environment which these young people inhabit, and provides a critical examination of the popular image of the contemporary British housing estate by exploring the political economy of drug dealing and crime at the local level. It also undertakes a detailed exploration and discussion of the gendered nature of drug taking practices and rituals.
By re-engaging with ethnographies this book provides a rich, descriptive account of young people's drug taking practices and behaviours within the context of supply. It also unveils the gendered meaning and context of drug taking and drug selling.
The NATO Advanced Studies Institute series "Targeting of Drugs" was originated in 1981. It is now a major international forum, held every two years in Cape Sounion, Greece, in which the present and the future of this important area of research in drug delivery is discussed in great depth. Previous ASIs of the series dealt with drug carriers of natural and synthetic origin, their interactions with the biological milieu, ways by which milieu interference is circumvented, approaches to carrier design or modification that contribute to optimal carrier function, and, more recently, with strategies for gene and oligonucleotide delivery in therapy The present book contains the proceedings of the 9th NATO ASI, "Targeting of Drugs: Strategies for Stealth Therapeutic Systems", held in Cape Sounion during 24 June -5 July 1997. As the title implies, the book deals with a variety of approaches to evade the reticuloendothelial system and thus extend the circulation time of a variety of delivery systems including polymers, biopolymers, liposomes, and other nanoparticles or microparticles. We express our appreciation to Mrs. Concha Perring for her assistance with the organization of the AS!. The ASI was held under the sponsorship of NATO Scientific Affairs Division and supported by Sequus Pharmaceuticals (Menlo Park, CA, USA), The Liposome Company (Princeton, NJ, USA), NOVO Nordisk (Bagsvaard, Denmark), NeXstar Pharmaceuticals (Boulder, CO, USA), Gene Medicine (Houston, TX, USA), Pfizer Ltd (Sandwich, Kent, UK), Merck (Rahway, NJ, USA), and Biovation Ltd (Aberdeen, UK).
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